学习phonics的 29个拼写规则介绍

栏目:少儿教育 发布时间:2020-10-14 02:20:45 阅读数:
这篇是技术贴,主要列出了拼读拼写中的一些规则,需要认真学习。+ W. A% n8 \3 J5 a! p: w4 L' z
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* M$ U4 }: ab7 N+ U& ~8 f, W6 H记住这些规则,妈妈再也不用担心孩子的英文拼读了。
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3 N) D! M3 w3 [) ~8 p- t1、Q* u# `6 C' CS) {0 r/ [; P5 _
Rule:Q is always followedby U. U is not a vowel here.(queen)., G0 v$ X( G. P, G2 W7 }
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9 v, n2 D$ |/ Q) Y" _2、C
, g6 K; V9 v$ o0 p0 f, H( bRule: The letter C usually says [k] (cat,cot, cut), but C saysbefore e, i, or y(cent, city, cycle).
3 Y. v" U! x$ b规则:C通常发音[k] (比如:cat, cot, cut),但是C 在e, i, y前发音。(比如:cent, city, cycle)
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- k3 [+ d# ^% D7 N6 }/ _BRule: The letter g usually says [g] (gate,go, gust), but g may say [dʒ] before e, i, or y (page, giant, gym). The letterse and i following g do not always make the g say [dʒ] (get, girl, give); M7 }3 k0 k* t, i. Z6 x
规则:G通常发音[g],但是G 在e, i, y前可能发音[dʒ]。e和i 不一定总是让前面的g发音[dʒ] (比如:get, girl, give)
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( y2 m$ z$ E, a1 `4、A,E,O,U5 Pp! @5 I5 R6 o& V
Rule: A, E, O, U usually say letter name atthe end of a syllable.# |# K' Q: ?, h0 j
规则:A, E, O, U在音节尾通常发音字母音。
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5、I & Y
; u3 ^6 h! T# cRule: I and Y may say [ai]at the end of asyllable (si lent, cy cle), but usually say (in ci dent, cy cli cal). Theunaccented suffix-y may say [i:] at the end of a word(ba by, dad dy). The i atthe end of a syllable before another vowel that begins the next syllable maysay [i:](ra di o, me di a)
/ i! _0 P( Z; p8 W% v$ P规则:I 和 Y 在音节尾可能发音[ai],但通常发音。4 q3 j. Y: b+ g( f
非重读音节词尾的后缀y,可能读[i:](实际发音处在长音[i:]和短音之间)。I 在音节尾、下一音节首是另一元音时,i 可能会读[i:] (ra di o, me di a, period, curious)
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6、Y not I0 L! c: p3 q0 e' p8 G" [9 V
Rule: English words do not end in i, j, uor v. the letter y, not i, is used at the end of an English word(my).
+ G$ W/ [$ w- ^规则:英语单词不以i, j, u o或者 v 结尾。用y替代i用在英语单词词尾。7 Y# R/ D6 V! S6 a

3 Z3 \3 }: z( G8 p( d9 ]/ h6 K7、silent final Es+ K9 W* o# R$ W: F% y/ p- I
Rule 7-1: silent final e is to let thevowel say its second sound(letter name)
9 g7 A, S& E1 R$ U/ Y规则7-1:结尾不发音e使跟它隔一个字母的元音字母发第二音(即字母音,长音);
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Rule 7-2: silent final e is to prevent usfrom ending an English word with u or v, because English words do not end in i,j, u or v.
7 o( g, s1 ]+ `7 i0 e. y规则7-2:避免u和v出现在英语单词词尾。因为英语单词不以i, j, u 或者 v结尾。
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9 W3 A" O" C+ q6 l* Y; ^Rule 7-3: silent final e is to soften a cor g(to make c says,g says [dʒ])2 v2 X% ?$ x% w9 u
规则7-3: 使c和g读轻音(使c读,g读[dʒ])3 |3 }8 a, z9 \3 g- T* h1 N! U, ~4 c( _
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Rule 7-4: silent final e is to prevent usfrom having a syllable with no vowel. Every syllable must have a written vowel.
; @. P: ?9 \. ?5 e/ M规则7-4: 避免一个音节中没有元音。因为每一个音节都必须要有一个元音字母。
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6 C+ b8 _, ?/ m# r* x! ?) I7 B* yRule 7-5ther jobs or unknown reasons:& g7 c. U5 q3 h! I
(1) The E keeps a word that is notplural from ending in an ‘s’ Ex: dense(not dens),purse(not purs),false(notfals).跟其他单词的复数形式做区别。
# D' X3 r8 i* R% E' c(2) The E adds length to a shortmain-idea word. Ex.: are, ewe, rye.避免单词过短。( ^( s* a/ I! T4 ?7 W) Z
(3) The E gives a distinction inmeaning between homonyms. Ex: or/ore, for/fore.与同音字相区别。
8 q1 [# `! l) A# e5 y+ N0 ~3 T* W. {(4) The E is left over from MiddleEnglish or a foreign language where the final E was once pronounced. Ex:treatise, giraffe.在中古英语或外来语中曾经发音的e得以保留下来。
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; p/ L; g2 ]# y" `/ l7 r2 ]Rule: The phonogram or may say [ə:] afterthe w(works).
% R! \: n& \5 {) R( K规则:or通常读[ɔr:],但是or跟在w后,通常读[ə:](例外,仍读[ɔr:] worn sworn sword)7 \6 f# C8 H/ D! x
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9、IE or EI
3 k9 X3 f( h: @, w4 S+ ?+ H$ V( p$ v8 pRule: We use the ie most often. We use theie to say [i:](piece), as a suffix(mov ie), to say[ai](pie). We use the eiafter c(re ceive),if we say [ei],and in some exceptions.(Either weird foreignsovereign forfeited leisure. Neither heifer seized counterfeit protein.)7 M6 X' J0 }; u* K
规则:* s, Y6 [( B! R* |' ^) K. d1 I+ x
ie:我们最常用ie.(发音为[i:],[ ai]时用ie,表示后缀时也用ie)* X) o: L- `2 G! ^z8 y
ei:用ei有三种情况:1.在c后;2.如果读[ei](因为ie没有[ei]这个读音);3.例外,这些词可以用以下两个句子:6 K1 h& f4 f9 B5 t5 V7 Q) {
Either weird foreign sovereign forfeitedleisure.
/ v* d- J9 uK; HNeither heifer seized counterfeit protein.
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! v& b2 K! D' E2 p+ P10、SH
. r7 Z. L, j5 ~$ f* V! j5 \( m+ gRule: SH is used at the beginning of aword(she),at the end of a syllable/word(fish/fish es),but not at the beginningof any syllable after the first one(na tion), except for theending-ship(friendship).' ]( \+ \0 T, N1 ZN8 o7 ]. I
Rule:, FD8 z6 s6 T
规则:SH用在单词词首、在音节或单词尾,但不用在非第一音节的其他首位(除了后缀-ship)/ z, p/ w* e$ l/ o* v; X2 I0 r

% J# Q0 J+ @4 d* _L2 _11、TI, SI, CI
, H2 h+ H$ g6 `) pRule11-1: The ti, si, ci say [ʃ] at thebeginning of any syllable after the first one.! @( u- M5 N?6 F/ o9 g0 \[
(na tion, man sion, spe cial)8 Z7 D8 q$ p" L! }) z
规则11-1:ti, si, ci 用在非第一音节的其他首位,读[ʃ]。
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Rule11-2: The si say [ʃ] when the precedingsyllable ends with s (ses sion) and when the root word has an s(manse/mansion).Only si can say [ʒ]except for ti in “equation”(vision)9 N2 T# D2 C& q* p! v
规则11-2:前面的音节以S结尾或者当根词以s结尾,si读[ʃ],TI, SI, CI中只有si 可以读[ʒ](除了equation中的ti)
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( I8 z- _* N" A! ]/ \Use a few letters to represent a larger word(Mr. =Mister, m=meter, CA=California)., q. u4 d! N, X, M. k% P

; D7 N% T* J' w& O]. p6 J+ q0 a13、CONTRACTIONS 缩略词9 `! eI8 m" J9 SX" O
Replace a letter (or letters) with anapostrophe to contract (or shorten)a phrase(I am=I’m).
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0 q6 l' y/ l- u$ t; g! @: ~! ?) W6 t: s. M14、Rule 1-1-1 suffix, l$ k+ @1 x; _0 H% H% H
Rule: With a one-syllable wordending in one vowel then one consonant, double the last consonantbefore adding a vowel suffix(get, getting).! P1 Y; W; _) b4 ^9 C2 Z3 Vv" s
规则:以一个元音加一个辅音结尾的单音节单词,加以元音开头的后缀时,双写最后一个辅音。% x* S, y9 k; v' b% ^1 h, k
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15、Rule 2-1-1 Accent
4 M/ v1 [7 g6 jRule: With a two-syllable word ending inone vowel the one consonant, double the last consonant before adding avowel suffix IF the accent is on the last syllable.(for get, for getting)
: f3 v: I3 \" m1 A^# S规则:以一个元音加一个辅音结尾的双音节或多音节词,加以元音开头的后缀时,如果重音在最后一个音节,则双写辅音后再加后缀。
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16、E’s Dropping Rule
4 L1 g- A4 b8 T% _4 kRule: Silent final Es commonly lose theneed for the E when adding a vowel suffix(hope/hoping/hopeless). In words likenoticeable or changeable rules 2 and 3 override rule 16.) n1 l/ H; X. v) M- g
规则:当加以元音开头的后缀时,一般要去掉结尾不发音的e。但是当符合规则2,3的词比如noticeable 或 changeable,要按照规则2,3,而不用规则16。8 i* J* s* e0 G1 x
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17、F F, L L, S S~# A5 Q9 f! D" ^
Rule: We often double F, L, S after asingle vowel at the end of a base word (off, all, confess).
' P- E; O$ v# R, @* ]9 y; g8 L3 O. SOccasionally other letters are doubled inthis way (ebb, odd, egg, inn, err, watt, jazz)., ?% b8 Q/ d1 i) {3 P, _; t
规则:单元音后面,词尾的f, l, s通常要双写。(有时还有其他一些字母也双写ebb, odd, egg, inn, err, watt, jazz)$ C- B8 T1 `- F2 P4 Z9 c- {
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18、AY9 d4 ^2 a) ?5 I% j
Rule: AY usually says [ei] at the end of abase word (may, pay). When a word ends with a it says [a:](ma).' T' R1 b9 z0 Y1 H% r+ q/ Lh: W, @
规则:ay用在单词结尾时通常读[ei]。在词尾的a读[a:]。7 b" m1 tl- k1 _1 s/ K( C

* @' w( I+ U: h, [; w2 O) p19、I&O
' B# {& U* F/ iRule: I and O may say [ai] and [əu] whenfollowed by two consonants (find, cold).
# ~! |, g$ |; V# S规则:I 和O后面跟着两个辅音,可能发音[ai]和[əu]。
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20、S, X &Suffix-es
. l- |& K- t" ?( _; i( T: _u& [Rule20-1: to make most nouns plural, justadd-s. When the word hisses (ch, tch, sh, x, s, z), changes, or just stops withO, add-es. Occasional words have no change, an internal change, or an irregularspelling./ i" z) l( ^7 Q7 u4 I- F) M
规则20-1:一般加s。尾音类似“嘶嘶”音的(ch, tch, sh, x, s, z)、需要y变i、f变v(wife/wives; fly/flies)、或者以o结尾的(tomato/tomatoes),加es。少量单词的复数形式保持原形不变(sheep/sheep),或只变中间(man/men),或是无变化规则的拼写形式(alumnus/alumni; piano/pianos)。
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Rule20-2:X is never directlybefore S. (boxes, excel). There is a sound in X.
* h- o/ n9 R4 w5 B# ^Y规则20-2:X从来不用在s前面。X里有的发音。
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9 }+ b9 l3 X% U9 f, U21、Dismiss L rule- ~/ i7 g( e+ L) ~# v
Rule: the words ALL, FULL and till arewritten with one L when they are added to another syllable. (almost, fulfill,careful, until)." V8 h* z& Y$ c
规则:all, full, till, 当它们加到词根上形成另一个音节时,只写一个L。% e& G6 k4 k+ f8 B$ Z
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1 O: E: u/ q8 X8 {Rule: DGE is used only after a single vowelwhich says [æ]-[e]--[ɔ]-[ʌ] (badge, edge, ridge, lodge, fudge).; i; D% S}' j- n$ h: B
规则:三个字母音图[dʒ](dge),可用在读[æ]-[e]--[ɔ]-[ʌ]的单元音后面。) A* `, [7 d4 K/ C" a. x5 o5 `

z1 r/ A+ i3 B23、TCH% a& B( y# V' a/ S+ L3 M3 z/ |
Rule: TCH may be used after a single vowelwhich does not say [ei]-[i:]-[ai]-[əu]-[ju:](match, watch, sketch, blotch,crutch, butcher)j- `7 k, S' E, G9 J
规则:TCH [tʃ],可用在不读[ei]-[i:]-[ai]-[əu]-[ju:]的单元音后面。4 ]* AR( a& _, f! D6 g4 Y

/ F: X* C! U0 m/ C7 [% b. T24、Y’s Suffixes8 ez3 ~2 H. }5 N# {
Rule: The single vowel Y (not phonogramsay, ey or oy) changes to i when adding a suffix(try/tried, pup py/pup pies)unless the suffix starts with an i (-ing/try ing, -ish/ba by ish).
7 j9 |# |2 D" y+ A; H" n规则:以单元音y结尾的单词,加后缀时,要将y改成i,以i开头的后缀除外。( y" m5 s) ?+ L; g

; x3 ]- B! X* y; ?; \$ O25、CK
& E' G1 u4 ?+ d9 G8 G8 RRule: CK used only after a single vowelwhich says[æ]-[e]--[ɔ]-[ʌ](back, peck, pick, pock et, truck)! ^- j; yW3 Y. y: A$ @9 Ki
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26、CAPITALIZEc# [$ x! K! O: T% z( Y$ L# A( e
Rule: Individual names or titles of persons(Jesus), place(Ohio) or things(Bible).
4 p$ P+ {6 e2 y) d2 w规则:大写规则。专有名词首字母大写。; w! v- V1 [+ ]. I# p# G# M# {

9 g5 e+ c2 m0 O2 |: n4 \) ~27、Z, NEVER S, F4 R) |U. Q( S; @( U/ p2 \
Rule: The z, never s, is used to say [z] atthe beginning of a root word (zebra, zoo).
' k4 Z8 g0 C1 A' H* }0 |8 d规则:单词开头发音[z],用z,永远不会用s。
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) U" z3 b) [4 I4 p28、ED. v4 Y, A" j% F/ t7 G7 `3 v
Rule: The ed says[d]and[t]as the past tenseending of any root word that does not end in the sound [d](killed)or[t](liked).When the ed says[ed]after words ending with d(land/ land ed) or t(act/act ed)they form another syllable.( @# |9 D1 n) c~
规则:根词词尾读[d]或[t]时,过去式后缀ed读[ed],形成另一个音节。根词词尾不读[d]或[t]时,过去式后缀ed读[d]或[t]。根词词尾是voiced sound(浊音),读[d](voiced);根词词尾是unvoiced sound(清音),读[t](unvoiced)。% L* e9 l; N_. o3 [! U

( k* U! @! p- y7 B4 l0 ]! J' j29、Double Consonants5 {: }4 i6 g& C5 D
Rule: Double consonants within words ofmore than one syllable should both be sounded for spelling (lit tle, but ton)
7 S4 b# [( c8 Y; S2 J规则:多音节单词中双写辅音的,为拼写目的需要都读出来(这是给指导教师听写用的规则,学生不需要学习)。
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